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Moreover, Lenin’s high school principal (the father of Aleksandr Kerensky, who was later to lead the Provisional government deposed by Lenin’s Bolsheviks in November [October, O.S.] Emeritus Professor of History, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb. Lenin's Bolshevik government initially shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, and a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. [10] Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria, a Lutheran by upbringing, was largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. [179] Lenin disliked Moscow,[180] but rarely left the city centre during the rest of his life. [67] He became friends with fellow Russian Marxist Leon Trotsky. Even in such a state he was capable of, University and political radicalisation: 1887–1893, Early activism and imprisonment: 1893–1900, Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1914, February Revolution and the July Days: 1917, Organising the Soviet government: 1917–1918, Social, legal, and economic reform: 1917–1918, Anti-Kulak campaigns, Cheka, and Red Terror: 1918–1922, Civil War and the Polish–Soviet War: 1918–1920, Comintern and world revolution: 1919–1920, Famine and the New Economic Policy: 1920–1922, Declining health and conflict with Stalin: 1920–1923. [542] According to historian Nina Tumarkin, it represented the world's "most elaborate cult of a revolutionary leader" since that of George Washington in the United States,[543] and has been repeatedly described as "quasi-religious" in nature. [218] In late 1918, the Czech-Austrian Marxist Karl Kautsky authored an anti-Leninist pamphlet condemning the anti-democratic nature of Soviet Russia, to which Lenin published a vociferous reply. [442] He adapted his ideas according to changing circumstances,[443] including the pragmatic realities of governing Russia amid war, famine, and economic collapse. [271] The Communist Party tried to restrain its activities in February 1919, stripping it of its powers of tribunal and execution in those areas not under official martial law, but the Cheka continued as before in swathes of the country. [157] Lenin and many other Bolsheviks expected proletariat revolution to sweep across Europe in days or months. [456] He believed that this socialist state would need to be a centralised, unitary one, and regarded federalism as a bourgeois concept. [446] Leninism adopted a more absolutist and doctrinaire perspective than other variants of Marxism,[429] and distinguished itself by the emotional intensity of its liberationist vision. [62], His wife Nadya joined Lenin in Munich and became his personal secretary. [55] There, he began raising funds for a newspaper, Iskra (Spark), a new organ of the Russian Marxist party, now calling itself the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). He did not question old Marxist scripture, he merely commented, and the comments have become a new scripture. [80] In turn, he insisted that the Bolsheviks split completely with the Mensheviks; many Bolsheviks refused, and both groups attended the Third RSDLP Congress, held in London in April 1905. [242], By early 1918, many cities in western Russia faced famine as a result of chronic food shortages. [328] Accordingly, the Bolsheviks dominated proceedings,[329] with Lenin subsequently authoring a series of regulations that meant that only socialist parties endorsing the Bolsheviks' views were permitted to join Comintern. [478], Service stated that Lenin could be "moody and volatile",[479] and Pipes deemed him to be "a thoroughgoing misanthrope",[480] a view rejected by Read, who highlighted many instances in which Lenin displayed kindness, particularly toward children. [436] Lenin's interpretation of socialism was centralised, planned, and statist, with both production and distribution strictly controlled. [43] Financed by his mother, he stayed in a Swiss health spa before travelling to Berlin, where he studied for six weeks at the Staatsbibliothek and met the Marxist activist Wilhelm Liebknecht. [495] He was also fond of pets,[496] in particular cats. He had little interest in farm management, and his mother soon sold the land, keeping the house as a summer home. [26], In September 1889, the Ulyanov family moved to the city of Samara, where Lenin joined Alexei Sklyarenko's socialist discussion circle. She was initially posted to Ufa, but persuaded the authorities to move her to Shushenskoye, claiming that she and Lenin were engaged; they married in a church on 10 July 1898. [13] Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he often bossed around; he had an extremely competitive nature and could be destructive, but usually admitted his misbehaviour. [257] Although sometimes described as an attempt to eliminate the entire bourgeoisie,[258] Lenin did not want to exterminate all members of this class, merely those who sought to reinstate their rule. [78] Lenin urged Bolsheviks to take a greater role in the events, encouraging violent insurrection. Some later biographers such as Read and Lars Lih sought to avoid making either hostile or positive comments about him, thereby evading politicised stereotypes. "[519] White described Lenin as "one of the undeniably outstanding figures of modern history",[520] while Service noted that the Russian leader was widely understood to be one of the 20th century's "principal actors. [291] Western troops soon pulled out of the civil war, instead only supporting the Whites with officers, technicians and armaments, but Japan remained because they saw the conflict as an opportunity for territorial expansion. [444] As Leninism developed, Lenin revised the established Marxist orthodoxy and introduced innovations in Marxist thought. Considering the government to be just as imperialist as the Tsarist regime, he advocated immediate peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary, rule by soviets, the nationalisation of industry and banks, and the state expropriation of land, all with the intention of establishing a proletariat government and pushing toward a socialist society. [350], In 1920 and 1921, local opposition to requisitioning resulted in anti-Bolshevik peasant uprisings breaking out across Russia, which were suppressed. I therefore propose to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive towards comrades, less capricious, etc. [383] In May 1922, he suffered his first stroke, temporarily losing his ability to speak and being paralysed on his right side. And until that end will have arrived, a series of the most terrible conflicts between the Soviet Republic and the bourgeois governments is unavoidable. [187] In November 1917, the government issued the Decree on the Press that closed many opposition media outlets deemed counter-revolutionary. In spite of this, he achieved top ranking in law examinations and was awarded a law degree in 1891. [348] In February 1922 Sovnarkom went further by calling on all valuables belonging to religious institutions to be forcibly appropriated and sold. [50], In May 1898, Nadya joined him in exile, having been arrested in August 1896 for organising a strike. "[459], Prior to taking power in 1917, he was concerned that ethnic and national minorities would make the Soviet state ungovernable with their calls for independence; according to the historian Simon Sebag Montefiore, Lenin thus encouraged Stalin to develop "a theory that offered the ideal of autonomy and the right of secession without necessarily having to grant either. [95] Bogdanov and Lenin holidayed together at Maxim Gorky's villa in Capri in April 1908;[96] on returning to Paris, Lenin encouraged a split within the Bolshevik faction between his and Bogdanov's followers, accusing the latter of deviating from Marxism. [415] On 23 January, mourners from the Communist Party, trade unions, and Soviets visited his Gorki home to inspect the body, which was carried aloft in a red coffin by leading Bolsheviks. Otherwise you will never lead tens of millions of people to Communism. [63] They continued their political agitation, as Lenin wrote for Iskra and drafted the RSDLP programme, attacking ideological dissenters and external critics, particularly the Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR),[64] a Narodnik agrarian-socialist group founded in 1901. [347] During the famine, Patriarch Tikhon called on Orthodox churches to sell unnecessary items to help feed the starving, an action endorsed by the government. [300] Although lacking proof, biographers and historians like Richard Pipes and Dmitri Volkogonov have expressed the view that the killing was probably sanctioned by Lenin;[301] conversely, historian James Ryan cautioned that there was "no reason" to believe this. He believed that competition and conflict would increase and that war between the imperialist powers would continue until they were overthrown by proletariat revolution and socialism established. A Marxist, he developed a variant of this communist ideology known as Leninism. Lenin was good in school and learned the Latin and Greek languages. [253] Speaking to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets in November 1917, he declared that "the state is an institution built up for the sake of exercising violence. [159] In the constitutional election, the Bolsheviks gained approximately a quarter of the vote, being defeated by the agrarian-focused Socialist-Revolutionaries. [532] Several such scholars have described Lenin as a dictator;[533] Ryan stated that he was "not a dictator in the sense that all his recommendations were accepted and implemented", for many of his colleagues disagreed with him on various issues. We know the direction of the road, we know what class forces will lead it, but concretely, practically, this will be shown by. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. [539] Historian J. Arch Getty remarked, "Lenin deserves a lot of credit for the notion that the meek can inherit the earth, that there can be a political movement based on social justice and equality. The majority of Bolsheviks rejected his position, hoping to prolong the armistice and call Germany's bluff. Force against Force. "[247], Requisitioning disincentivised peasants from producing more grain than they could personally consume, and thus production slumped. [246] A prominent example of Lenin's views was his August 1918 telegram to the Bolsheviks of Penza, which called upon them to suppress a peasant insurrection by publicly hanging at least 100 "known kulaks, rich men, [and] bloodsuckers. [553] During the Soviet era, these writings were strictly controlled and very few had access. [409] By May, he appeared to be making a slow recovery, regaining some of his mobility, speech, and writing skills. They were followed by three more children, Olga (born 1871), Dmitry (born 1874), and Maria (born 1878). Lenin] State University), but within three months he was expelled from the school, having been accused of participating in an illegal student assembly. [432] He believed that all workers throughout the country would voluntarily join together to enable the state's economic and political centralisation. [509] Service described Lenin as "a bit of a snob in national, social and cultural terms. [264] There are no surviving records to provide an accurate figure of how many perished in the Red Terror;[265] later estimates of historians have ranged between 10,000 and 15,000,[266] and 50,000 to 140,000. He became a Marxist in January 1889. [417] Under his administration, Russia, and later the Soviet Union, became a one-party socialist state governed by the Soviet Communist Party. Responding to wartime devastation, famine, and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. "[535] Volkogonov believed that whereas Lenin established a "dictatorship of the Party", it would only be under Stalin that the Soviet Union became the "dictatorship of one man. [164], Lenin rejected repeated calls, including from some Bolsheviks, to establish a coalition government with other socialist parties. He joined a revolutionary cell bent on assassinating the Tsar and was selected to construct a bomb. Omissions? [276] Those interned in the camps were used as slave labour. Rivers of blood are flowing, the civil war for freedom is blazing up. [47] He spent this time theorising and writing. [214], A faction of the Bolsheviks known as the "Left Communists" criticised Sovnarkom's economic policy as too moderate; they wanted nationalisation of all industry, agriculture, trade, finance, transport, and communication. [130] Over the following days, he spoke at Bolshevik meetings, lambasting those who wanted reconciliation with the Mensheviks and revealing his "April Theses", an outline of his plans for the Bolsheviks, which he had written on the journey from Switzerland. The USSR pumped resources into the development of higher education too. They were instructed to ignore pre-existing laws, and base their rulings on the Sovnarkom decrees and a "socialist sense of justice. [6] Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later. [181] He survived a second assassination attempt, in Moscow in August 1918; he was shot following a public speech and injured badly. [400] Lenin was increasingly critical of Stalin; while Lenin was insisting that the state should retain its monopoly on international trade during mid-1922, Stalin was leading other Bolsheviks in unsuccessfully opposing this. It is difficult to identify any particular events in his childhood that might prefigure his turn onto the path of a professional revolutionary. Recognising that these dissidents could cause problems for their Russian enemies, the German government agreed to permit 32 Russian citizens to travel in a sealed train carriage through their territory, among them Lenin and his wife. [120], In September 1917, Lenin published Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, which argued that imperialism was a product of monopoly capitalism, as capitalists sought to increase their profits by extending into new territories where wages were lower and raw materials cheaper. [112] The war pitted the Russian Empire against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and due to his Russian citizenship, Lenin was arrested and briefly imprisoned until his anti-Tsarist credentials were explained. [416] Transported by train to Moscow, the coffin was taken to the House of Trade Unions, where the body lay in state. Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR, League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, August 1918 telegram to the Bolsheviks of Penza, Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage, Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, execution of the former Tsar and his immediate family, various revolutionary socialist uprisings, Second Congress of the Communist International, "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, Death and state funeral of Vladimir Lenin, from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, List of places named after Vladimir Lenin, 100 most important people of the 20th century, Russian Centre for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, National delimitation in the Soviet Union, "Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols", "Lenin Mausoleum on Red Square in Moscow", "Mongolia capital Ulan-Bator removes Lenin statue", "Ukraine crisis: Lenin statues toppled in protest", Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, Newsreels about Vladimir Lenin // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism, The Right of Nations to Self-Determination, The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky, Political Administration of the Ministry of Defence, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, League of Russian Revolutionary Social Democracy Abroad, Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia, Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, Anti-religious campaign during the Russian Civil War, Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, 12th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), International League of Peoples' Struggle, International League of Religious Socialists, From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation, Crimes against humanity under communist regimes, 11th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 10th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 9th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 8th Politburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vladimir_Lenin&oldid=1020220611, Emigrants from the Russian Empire to Germany, Emigrants from the Russian Empire to Switzerland, Emigrants from the Russian Empire to the United Kingdom, Heads of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union members, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party members, Articles containing Russian-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Semantic Scholar author identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Wade, Rex A. From his Marxist perspective, Lenin argued that this Russian proletariat would develop class consciousness, which would in turn lead them to violently overthrow tsarism, the aristocracy, and the bourgeoisie and to establish a proletariat state that would move toward socialism. [240] After the Treaty, Sovnarkom focused on trying to foment proletarian revolution in Germany, issuing an array of anti-war and anti-government publications in the country; the German government retaliated by expelling Russia's diplomats. [293] Recognising their valuable military experience, Lenin agreed that officers from the old Tsarist army could serve in the Red Army, although Trotsky established military councils to monitor their activities. [219] German Marxist Rosa Luxemburg echoed Kautsky's views,[220] while Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin described the Bolshevik seizure of power as "the burial of the Russian Revolution. [447] It also stood out by emphasising the role of a vanguard who could lead the proletariat to revolution,[447] and elevated the role of violence as a revolutionary instrument. Lenin married Nadezhda Krupskaya on July 22, 1898. [225], Lenin proposed a three-month armistice in his Decree on Peace of November 1917, which was approved by the Second Congress of Soviets and presented to the German and Austro-Hungarian governments. [528] Conversely, the majority of Western historians have perceived him as a person who manipulated events in order to attain and then retain political power, moreover considering his ideas as attempts to ideologically justify his pragmatic policies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [323] Various senior Bolsheviks wanted these absorbed into the Russian state; Lenin insisted that national sensibilities should be respected, but reassured his comrades that these nations' new Communist Party administrations were under the de facto authority of Sovnarkom. [33] He devoted much time to radical politics, remaining active in Sklyarenko's group and formulating ideas about how Marxism applied to Russia. A painting of Lenin consoling his mother after the execution of his brother. Packing heat in the country is no easy task. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,[c] was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. [31], In May 1890, Maria, who retained societal influence as the widow of a nobleman, persuaded the authorities to allow Lenin to take his exams externally at the University of St Petersburg, where he obtained the equivalent of a first-class degree with honours. [397], In Lenin's absence, Stalin had begun consolidating his power both by appointing his supporters to prominent positions,[398] and by cultivating an image of himself as Lenin's closest intimate and deserving successor. [84] Joining the editorial board of Novaya Zhizn (New Life), a radical legal newspaper run by Maria Andreyeva, he used it to discuss issues facing the RSDLP. In May 1918, he issued a requisitioning order that established armed detachments to confiscate grain from kulaks for distribution in the cities, and in June called for the formation of Committees of Poor Peasants to aid in requisitioning. [49] His journey to eastern Siberia took 11 weeks, for much of which he was accompanied by his mother and sisters. Street fighting is raging, barricades are being thrown up, rifles are cracking, guns are booming. They claimed the measure would be temporary; the decree was widely criticised, including by many Bolsheviks, for compromising freedom of the press. During this period of enforced idleness, he met exiled revolutionaries of the older generation and avidly read revolutionary political literature, especially Marx’s Das Kapital. Learn about the life of the Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin. [133], Sensing growing frustration among Bolshevik supporters, Lenin suggested an armed political demonstration in Petrograd to test the government's response. [174] The only individual to have anywhere near this influence was Lenin's right-hand man, Yakov Sverdlov, who died in March 1919 during a flu pandemic. He began to study Karl Marx and became convinced that Marxism was the ideal form of government. "[538] Ryan also posits that for Lenin revolutionary violence was merely a means to an end, namely the establishment of a socialist, ultimately communist world—a world without violence. Other socialist parties this Narodnik view developed in the RSDLP ideological split lenin and education the! 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To Bern, [ 314 ] with the conflict developing into the War! Western Front and stave off looming defeat permission to take the path revolution... Pneumatic gun Lenin continued with his education at the Smolny Institute on October. In London in July 1903 [ 146 ], Despite the comfortable circumstances their... 1864 ) and Alexander ( born 1864 ) and Alexander was executed by hanging in May place until 1920. Acceptable if it ensured the survival of the violent opposition to Bolshevik rule in Russia industrial... 16 ] Subsequently, his father died of a new government, the of! State and the future of Europe he achieved top ranking in law examinations and was with. Split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov 's Mensheviks Council of people 's Commissars or! Lev Kamenev stories delivered right to your inbox scripture, he achieved top ranking in law examinations and publicly... Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and selected. 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